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All You Need to Know About Buyer Proration in Real Estate Transactions

As a real estate buyer in a transaction, your understanding of proration is essential for a smooth and fair closing process. Proration directly impacts your financial responsibilities at closing, determining how much you owe for various property-related expenses.

This includes your share of property taxes, homeowners association fees, and utility bills, calculated from the day you take ownership. It’s important for you to know how these costs are divided, as it affects your closing costs and overall budget for the purchase.

Additionally, with the advent of online notary services, the process of verifying these documents has become more convenient, allowing for a smoother and faster transaction process.

 In this guide, we’ll walk you through what you need to know about proration, ensuring you’re well-prepared and informed as you step into your new property.

What is Real Estate Buyer Proration?

Real estate buyer proration involves dividing ongoing property expenses, like taxes and HOA fees, between the seller and you, the buyer, based on ownership duration. This calculation ensures each party pays only for the time they own the property.

For instance, if you buy a home mid-tax cycle, you’re responsible for the taxes from the purchase date forward. This proration affects your closing costs, either increasing or decreasing the amount due at settlement. 

Understanding this concept is crucial for budgeting accurately for your home purchase, as it directly impacts your financial obligations at the time of property transfer.

Common Expenses Included in Real Estate Buyer Proration

In transactions, real estate buyer proration encompasses a variety of expenses, ensuring that both you and the seller pay your fair share based on the time you own the property. 

Here are some common expenses included in buyer proration:

  • Property Taxes: These are annual taxes charged by local governments. As a buyer, you will be responsible for a prorated share of these taxes from the date of purchase until the end of the tax year. This ensures that you only pay for the period you own the property.
  • Homeowners Association (HOA) Fees: If the property is part of an HOA, you must cover the prorated portion of these fees from the closing date onwards. HOA fees are used to maintain common areas and other community-related expenses.
  • Utility Bills: Utilities such as water, gas, and electricity are often prorated in real estate transactions. You will be responsible for the utility costs incurred when you take ownership. This proration is particularly important if the seller has made any advance payments for these services.
  • Insurance Premiums: In cases where the seller has prepaid homeowners’ insurance, you will be expected to reimburse them for the portion of the insurance period that covers your ownership.
  • Service Contracts: This can include landscaping, pest control, or security services agreements. If these services have been prepaid, you will owe a prorated amount for the time you own the property.

It’s important to review these details carefully and seek the help of a real estate closing attorney to ensure all prorations are fair and accurate.
Also, get your title and escrow documents notarized online remotely to secure your transactions.

How is Real Estate Buyer Proration Calculated?

Allocating property-related expenses between the seller and buyer is a meticulous process in real estate transactions. This calculation is typically based on the exact date of property transfer and involves several key steps:

  • Determine the Proratable Expenses: The first step is identifying which expenses are subject to proration. Examples include property taxes, homeowners association (HOA) fees, utility bills, and insurance premiums. Each expense has a different billing cycle and payment terms, which are crucial in the calculation process.
  • Calculate Daily Expense Rates: A daily rate is calculated for each proratable expense. This is done by dividing the total annual or monthly cost by the number of days in the year or month, respectively. For instance, if the annual property tax is $3,600, the daily rate would be $3,600 divided by 365, resulting in a daily tax rate.
  • Determine the Ownership Period: Next, determine how long each party owns the property. This is typically based on the closing date. The seller is responsible for expenses up to and including the 14th of a month, and you are responsible from the 15th.
  • Apply the Daily Rates to the Ownership Period: Multiply the daily rate for each expense by the number of days each party owns the property. For the buyer, this period starts from the closing date to the end of the billing cycle.
  • Adjustments at Closing: The final step involves making adjustments at closing. A prorated share of prepaid expenses beyond closing will be owed to the real estate seller. Conversely, you will receive a credit for the seller’s share if expenses are due but not yet paid.

The calculation ensures that you only pay for expenses incurred during your ownership period. A real estate closing attorney or agent can help ensure accuracy and fairness in these calculations.

Practical Examples

In real-life scenarios, real estate buyer proration can vary depending on the property transaction’s specifics and the possession timing. Here are a couple of examples to illustrate how this works:

  • Possession at Closing: If you, as the real estate buyer, are taking possession of the property at closing, it’s common for the seller to request that you pay the entire property tax or homeowners association (HOA) fee for the month of closing.

 This is especially true if these expenses are due shortly after closing. Alternatively, if the seller has already prepaid these items for the period beyond the closing date, you will be required to reimburse them. For example, if the seller has paid the full month’s HOA fee and you close mid-month, you would reimburse them for half of the month during which you will own the property.

  • Early Possession: The contract should reflect this arrangement if you take possession of the property before the actual closing date. It’s vital to stipulate whether the proration date will be adjusted to match your early possession date. In such cases, you might be responsible for a prorated share of expenses like utilities or HOA fees from the date you take possession rather than the official closing date. This ensures that you’re only paying for these expenses when you occupy the property.

In both scenarios, accurate proration is crucial to ensure fairness. It’s advisable to work closely with your real estate agent or attorney to understand these details and ensure that the real estate contract accurately reflects the proration agreement. This careful attention to detail helps avoid misunderstandings or unexpected financial obligations as you transition into your new home.


Understanding real estate buyer proration is essential for buyers and sellers in real estate transactions. It ensures a fair distribution of expenses and helps avoid potential disputes during the transaction. 
Expenses subject to proration include property taxes, HOA fees, and utility bills. Proration amounts are calculated by dividing the total expense by the number of days in the year and multiplying that amount by the number of days the buyer will own the property. During the closing process, the prorated expenses are due, and the title company or escrow agent will adjust the final settlement statement accordingly.

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